Are all Pterosaurs Extinct? Is it really meaningless to the credibility of standard models whether or not all species of pterosaurs are extinct? This is a reply to Glen Kuban’s web page. The testimonies of the above nine men say “no” to the assumption that all species of pterosaurs are extinct Garth Guessman Jonathan Whitcomb Paul Nation Gideon Koro Brian Hennessy Mesa Agustin Duane Hodgkinson Eskin Kuhn David Woetzel "Do nothing to refute mainstream geology" are the words of Glen Kuban. This phrase, however, is a clue that he is actually protecting a philosophy, for science, by its nature, is expected to bring about changes in opinion about what we used to think: changes. To consider "mainstream geology" to be a branch of science, it would need to be capable of change, even major change, should that become necessary (An observation by Jonathan Whitcomb). Why emphasize old hoaxes irrelevant to critical new sighting reports? Copyright 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012  Jonathan David Whitcomb Science and Change Scientific Analysis of Paul Nation’s Video ". . . absence of combustion sources is confirmed, as is the absence of evidence for 'ballistic sources' and meteor vapor trails . . . Ropen lights (or indava lights) are not caused by fire, airplane lights, or meteors." Analysis, by the physicist Clifford Paiva, regarding Paul Nation's video footage of two Indava lights observed near the top of a ridge deep in the interior of the mainland of Papua New Guinea, late in 2006. In addition, analysis revealed NO paste-on hoax was involved. The Gitmo Pterosaur The Gitmo Pterosaur was observed by Eskin Kuhn in 1971 and sketched by him very soon after his sighting. It was also observed by Patty Carson in 1965, but she did not begin sketching until 2011. The credibility of these two eyewitnesses was con- firmed by Jonathan Whitcomb, who interviewed both eyewitnesses early in the 21st century. No sign for any hoax was found: They’re credible. Brian Hennessy, a psychologist Gideon Koro, with six other boys in about 1994, saw a giant “ropen,” in daylight, flying over Lake Pung, Umboi Island, Papua New Guinea. To  the American interviewer Jonathan Whitcomb, Gideon said that the tail length was “sefan meetuh” (twenty-two feet). There were “no feathers.” There was also no sign of any hoax with any of these eyewitnesses. Pterosaur sketch by eyewitness Eskin C. Kuhn Gideon Koro of Umboi Island, Papua New Guinea, 2004 Brian Hennessy, a psychologist whose work has, in recent years, included consulting for a medical university in China, saw a large creature looking prehistoric” in Papua New Guinea, in 1971. It had a long tail but no sign of feathers; it also had a horn-like appendage. The overall description strongly suggests a modern pterosaur. And how inappropriate to conjecture that a psychologist would perpetrate a hoax. That never happened. A flight instructor, with over 13,000 hours of airplane-flying experience, Duance Hodgkinson (right) saw, in 1944, a giant “pterodactyl” with a tail “at least” 10-15 feet long. Mr. Hodgkinson now lives in Montana. He has no reason to perpetrate a hoax for six decades. Garth Guessman (left) interviews Duane Hodgkinson Paul Nation, Umboi Island Expedition of 2002 Paul Nation’s second time on Umboi Island, with his son Nathanael in 2002, helped establish and strengthen friendships with natives, making for more successful expeditions in 2004, by three other Americans. (Umboi, AKA “Siassi,” is in Papua New Guinea) No hoax was involved. Paul Nation was interviewed by Jonathan Whitcomb (2006) Paul Nation, of Texas, had videotaped two “indava" lights that Whitcomb and other investigators believe are from giant long-tailed pterosaurs on the mainland of Papua New Guinea (late-2006 expedition). Whitcomb’s peer-reviewed paper in scientific journal "Eyewitness testimonies can be divided into two categories: those describing a flying light and those describing a creature. Four of the eyewitnesses describe both a glow and a shape or features, connecting the two types of description." Scientific Paper on Living Pterosaurs  Introduction to Kuban’s Criticism of the Concept of Modern Pterosaurs Glen Kuban has created a web page devoted to discrediting the idea that pterosaurs have lived in human times. An in- depth response is found in the appendix of my book Searching for Ropens, (second edition, although the third edition is up- coming). In brief, Mr. Kuban draws attention to the weakest reasons for believing  in modern pterosaurs, the weak reports; he also points out  flaws or just possible flaws  in some of the words and reasoning of those who promote the concept of living pterosaurs. He also emphasizes a nineteenth-century newspaper account that is believed to have been a hoax. But consider two critical points that he ignores: the strongest eyewitness-testimony accounts and the philosophical foun- dations of the conflict (why be open-minded or close-minded about the possibility of modern live pterosaurs). What critical points! He could have done better if he had looked carefully, rather than assume that eyewitnesses had looked carelessly. “Mainstream Geology” According to Glen Kuban: “While finding a living species of pterosaur would be a monumental discovery, it would do nothing to refute mainstream geology.” (web page of Glen Kuban, at least until the summer of 2011) Reply: “Do nothing” and “refute” are strong expressions, in this case offering a clue about the  nature  of  what  Mr. Kuban  means  by “mainstream geology,” or the real nature of what he thus labels. True scientific progress normally involves refinements in theory; it sometimes even involves the rejection of a theory that turns out poorly when compared with another theory. Pterosaur Discoveries and Philosophy How might Kuban react to the discoveries of three species of living pterosaurs plus two species of living dinosaurs? Would he modify “do nothing to refute mainstream geology?” What about fifteen species of living pterosaurs and dinosaurs? Whether or not he would modify his thinking or the phrasing of his words would depend on how dogmatically he is holding onto a philosophy that is woven into “mainstream geology.” Both the General Theory of Evolution (GTE) and standard-model (he calls “mainstream”) geology are based upon the philosophy of Naturalism, which is not to be confused with “natural science.” Naturalism includes the assumption that origins, in the distant past, had nothing to do with any miraculous intervention from any god; “natural science,” on the other hand, requires no opinion on early origins. “Do nothing to refute” seems to be a well-chosen phrase to protect a philosophy, for scientific hypotheses and theories are not legiti- mized by this kind of phrase; this is inappropriate in science, if it is not outright unscientific. Glen Kuban has stepped outside his area of specialty, paleontology, and into a realm in which he is not an expert: cryptozoology. Why Believe in Extinction? Since Darwin wrote about his conjectures on the origin of life, dinosaur and pterosaur fossils have been offered as if scientific evidence for his philosophy of universal common ancestry. After all, a biological microorganism cannot change into a human (over billions of years) without leaving countless organisms in the far distant past; it would be unbelievable. Dinosaurs and pterosaurs appeared to be just what was needed, the apparent evidence that many organisms, different from present ones, had lived in the distant past; the fossils were gladly taken to all be from extinct creatures that lived long ago. How convenient! In Searching for Ropens, I wrote, “Since no researcher in Europe [when fossils were first being discovered] had any knowledge of living creatures similar to the fossils, it was  assumed that they were all extinct. The key word is ‘assumed.’. . if only 1% of the population of Western Europe, in the late 18th Century, had . . . [seen] living pterosaurs, the universal-pterosaur-extinction notion would never have gotten started.” (second edition, page 237). Extinction Propaganda Nothing on Mr. Kuban’s web page (as of mid- 2007) mentions any evidence for the extinction of any species of pterosaur. As I wrote (SFR) on page 234, this web page “seems devoid of evidence for pterosaur extinction; does he expect us to take his word for it?” And why mention a nineteenth-century hoax? Without any scientific evidence to support his case--universal pterosaur extinction--Kuban leaves us with only one explanation: He's relying on generations of declarations about extinction. But those with open minds are learning that the solemn obituary- like proclamations are virtual propaganda, if not sometimes actually dogmatic propaganda.  Those  declarations  have  been indoctrinating  millions into  assuming  that all pterosaurs and dinosaurs became extinct many millions of years ago. Does Kuban ignore the strongest evidences for living pterosaurs? Judge for yourself. At least in the earlier versions of his web page, I would say that he is either ignorant of those major points of evidence or he chooses to ignore them. Ignoring the importance of eyewitness evidence, he seems anxious to dance to any tune except one: "modern pterosaur." Gitmo Pterosaur Eyewitness, about 1965 When Patty Carson was a child, living with her family at the Guantanamo Bay military base in Cuba, she encountered the “pterodactyl” that would, six years later, be witnessed by the U.S. Marine Eskin C. Kuhn, at that same base. Read the details in the third edition of LPA. Carson is now an R.N., living in California. She has not perpetrated any hoax. California Pterodactyl Sighting near CSUF at Irvine The non-fiction cryptozoology book Live Pterosaurs in America, by Jonathan Whitcomb, has a publication scheduled for late 2011. It gives exciting details about sightings in many states. Learn the truth about the idea that all species of pterosaurs became extinct millions of years ago: However many may have become extinct, some species still live. Live Pterosaurs in America An anonymous eyewitness in Orange County, California, was shocked at the giant creature that flew over Campus Drive, northwest of the state university campus at Irvine, in the summer of 2007. He was interviewed by Jonathan Whitcomb, who found the man’s testimony credible, even though the sighting was extraordinary: The length of the pterosaur-like flying creature, from end of tail to beak, was about the width of Campus Drive, about thirty feet, according to the eyewitness. This anonymous eyewitness has no reason to play a hoax, for it could damage severely his professional reputation. Although Mr. Kuban does not suggest that all sightings of "modern pterosaurs" in Papua New Guinea are misidentifications of Flying Fox fruit bats, he says, “It's likely that at least some southern hemisphere sightings of ‘pterosaurs’ are explained by fruit bats.” He then admits, “Of course, no bats are known to be bioluminescent, or that have wing spans of 25 feet.” He then gives no explanation for the creature’s bioluminescence or giant size. He also seems to have no explanation for tails between ten feet and twenty-two feet. Since he does not seem to have any explanation, why does he not admit this? Is it because he is so focused on discrediting the idea of living pterosaurs that he ignores the most important evidence: valid and credible evidence that pterosaurs really do live in Papua New Guinea? Examine each eyewitness testimony and then compare the many similarities in the descriptions of the flying creatures. The true credibility of the living-pterosaurs idea then will become clear. And for learning about rare nocturnal creatures in remote areas, clarity in thinking about the possibility of live pterosaurs, however rare for Westerner professors, may be essential. ### Flying Fox Fruit Bat Suggestion by Glen Kuban See the 2010 blog page about bulverism from a paleontologist, albeit the bulverism from Glen Kuban may be only mild "I do not understand how a critic can fail to see the fallacy of avoiding eyewitness-report details: More than once I’ve noticed a critic will invent an eyewitness scenario and appear to assume that the reported sightings of apparent pterosaurs fit into the critic’s fabricated outline. How dogmatic are some advocates of universal extinction of pterosaurs!" (comment by Jonathan Whitcomb) No Hoax Not Misidentified  Email - Report your sighting